what are the bases of inequality in the philippines

Social solidarity, instead of social distancing, became the challenge that went viral on social media. In fact, income tax in the Philippines is the highest among all ASEAN countries. Or rather, from a Marxist perspective, individuals, through exchange, could only demand that portion of the social goods allotted to them by distribution, the latter being determined by social laws beyond the agency of the individual. [1] Sofia Tomacruz, “Duterte Declares State of Public Health Emergency Amid Rise in Corona Virus Cases,” Rappler, 9 March 2020, available at https://www.rappler.com/nation/253833-duterte-declares-state-public-health-emergency-rise-coronavirus-cases-march-2020; 29 March 2020. 5 Philippines’ HDI for 2018 is 0.712.However, when the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.582, a loss of 18.2 percent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices. When the state of national health emergency was declared by President Rodrigo Duterte last 8 March 2020, the country had already recorded ten Covid-19 cases and had gained the reputation of having the first death outside of China. Since 2008 there has been an average growth of about 6% annually but the main reason economic advantages are not being felt by most Filipinos is that this national income growth is the result of investments from the elite sector comprising only of 20% of the population. [5] Gerardo Sicat, “Historical Roots of Urban Squatting,” PhilStar, 21 November 2017, available at https://www.philstar.com/business/2017/11/21/1761150/historical-roots-urban-squatting; 29 March 2020. There is indeed a noted growth when it comes to Philippine GDP. The Philippines showed particularly large variations, with speeds 2.8 times as fast when experienced at the fastest hour of the day. Women survivors raise their voices for justice. But what about the middle class, the people who have Bachelor Degrees and are employed? Great inequality across income brackets, regions, and sectors, as well as unmanaged population growth, are considered some of the key factors constraining poverty reduction efforts. Its geographic location makes the country more prone to frequent earthquakes, strong typhoons, and other natural disasters. Old civilizations knew how to transact without money and the state of living seemed to be fair for all, until the Spaniards came and introduced classification according to social status. – Focusing on poverty problems and But social solidarity must not be understood as the philanthropic actions of a few toward the many. [1] After such a declaration by the President, more declarations followed, both at the national as well as the local levels. It has 3 major parts. Considering all of these, the wealth disparity and inequality in the Philippines are rooted in historical events and can probably take too long to be resolved, if possible, since the economy is controlled by 20% of the elites. A 2009 report showed that the poorest 20% of the population had only 4.45% of the national income. In the Philippines, where more than a quarter of the country 's population of 92.3 million lives below the poverty line, economic and social inequality … And if ever there are jobs, salary rates among regions differ, even if prices of commodities is the same everywhere. – Strengthening monitoring and evaluation in areas where projects on economic development are being implemented especially consistency in anti corruption activities. The difference of income between the rich and the poor could cause tension in society and political instability. But if there is one lesson that the Covid-19 pandemic has to teach humanity, it is that, for one to be safe, others must be also. Sen Aquilino Pimentel, on the other hand, is Covid-19 positive. According to a study conducted by José De Gregorio, income inequality increases with educational inequality. In a briefing on Thursday, May 30, Socioeconomic Planning Undersecretary Adoracion Navarro said the inequality in gross regional domestic product (GRDP) per capita, or … The Philippines’ response to the Covid-19 pandemic would also later on be addressed by the creation of the National Action Plan (NAP) chaired by Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana,[3] a military general and the administrator of Martial Law in Mindanao from 2017 to 2019. This is the reason why the concept of masters and peasants came about. First, the idea of a home quarantine would really be effective if and only if there were indeed a home for all citizens to stay quarantined inside in the first place. Inequality has slightly widened in the past year in the Philippines, where only 0.1 percent of the adult population has wealth of more than $1 million. In this enhanced quarantine, a strict home quarantine is to be observed in all households from 17 March to 13 April 2020. [2] While certain individuals and groups are among the exceptions to the general rule of home quarantine, virtually all of the people of Luzon are prohibited from going out of their households during the entire duration of the ECQ. [7] Bulatlat, “300 Families in Pasay Lose Homes Amid COVID-19 Pandemic,” Bulatlat: Journalism for the People, 18 March 2020, available at https://www.bulatlat.com/2020/03/18/300-homes-in-pasay-demolished-amid-covid-19-pandemic/; 29 March 2020. [6] In the absence of decent housing where one can shelter oneself from the dangers of a contagious and deadly virus, one can merely secure a night’s rest on exposed sidewalks most vulnerable to the threat itself, thus defeating altogether the very notion of quarantine. Daily wages here literally mean the amount paid to the laborer on a daily basis as an exchange for his/her labor power for that particular day. And in a country where millions are living on daily minimum wage and still a thousand others are practically living without work at all, the share and distribution of the social goods can be as unequal as the income gap between the rich and the poor Filipinos. [14] There are more stories of abuse and discrimination against the poor, the Muslims, women, and other ordinary citizens during the implementation of the ECQ in the Philippines that manifest social inequality in the country. The Department of Justice, contrary to the action against Dorothy Espejo, called for compassion in relation to the Senator’s case. They are Recently, it has been reported that the billionaires seek shelter from the Covid-19 pandemic in chartered superyachts. [2] Anjo Alimario, “Enhanced Community Quarantine Takes Effect in Luzon,” CNN Philippines, 17 March 2020, available at https://www.cnnphilippines.com/videos/2020/3/17/-Enhanced-Community-Quarantine–takes-effect-in-Luzon.html; 29 March 2020. With a meager daily minimum wage of Php 537 (USD 10.53) in the National Capital Region, the highest minimum wage in all the regions of the Philippines, a worker will lose around Php 15,000 (USD 294) in one month’s time. Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. And these people made up more than half of the population. It aims to explain gender relations and inequality in the Philippines, particularly in the workplace. “Eliminating inequality of opportunity in economic participation could increase worker productivity in the region by 7 to 18 percent,” said Mr. Mason. Indonesia and Thailand show losses due to inequality of 17.4 percent … But while the rich and the middle class panicked to secure for themselves and buy goods which they deemed necessary for their survival during the ECQ, the poor merely panicked. Glaring and contrasting examples are between Dorothy Espejo and Sen. Aquilino Pimentel III. Philippines The source for global inequality data. [5] The housing issue in the Philippines would make timely what Friedrich Engels explained in 1872 in The Housing Question. 2 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969), 305. In fact, the NAP would be composed of military generals whose medical knowledge, it can be presumed, is far inferior to that of scientists and health experts more fit to lead a body tasked to curb the effects of a pandemic. The report shows that the Philippines has gone a long way in enhancing women’s voice both in the home and society. [11] The monstrous face of social inequality is revealed during times of crises and pandemics. After the destruction of lands, people who are not part of the elite found opportunities for living through buy and sell. This would not be compensated by the government’s adjustment measure program under which an affected worker is promised Php 5,000 (USD 98) in cash as an alleviating measure during the ECQ period. ChildFund has operated in the Philippines since 1954 and works to ensure the nation's poorest children and their families have access to the food, health care and education they need to survive. [8] Ibon Media, “Contractualization: A Neoliberal Policy,” Ibon, 26 April 2018, available at https://www.ibon.org/contractualization-a-neoliberal-policy-excerpt-from-ibon-facts-figures/; 29 March 2020. In developing countries, inequality has increased by 11 percent if we take into account the growth of population. The first part introduces the sociology of gender, feminism, and 3 major feminist theories. Section 3 focuses on the sources of the nationwide income inequality and examines how much of the national-level income inequality is attributable to spatial inequality. The 46-percent Philippine inequality index is higher than the Asean’s 42 percent. Note: See more recent data on the Philippines on the dashboard Philippines: By … However, the approaches utilized have in ... bases for the study of inequality. Second, restricting the movement of the general population has a more disadvantageous effect to those who live by daily wages. Gender inequality in the labor market is ascertained here by reference to seven gender gaps (or deficits for women): labor force participation, human capital, the unpaid domestic and care work burden, vulnerable employment, wage employment, decent work, and social protection. A study by a research and advisory firm in 2011 revealed that the gap between the rich and poor is widest in the Philippines as compared with other Southeast Asian nations. There is inequality based upon ethnicity, gender, land ownership, linguistic ability and religious affiliation. This resulted in inflation and more and more people started losing personal lands thus resulted to hoarding and social unrest. National income distribution is thus a function of f 1, f 2, and x.A change in national inequality is the result of changes in urban income distribution f 1, rural income distribution f 2, and/or a shift of population from rural to urban, measured by a change in x.. While pandemics are global and universal in character, their effects and especially the suffering they cause vary from one social class to another. Income inequality in the Philippines is the extent to which income, most commonly measured by household or individual, is distributed in an uneven manner in the Philippines. One of the main causes of income inequality in the Philippines can be traced to educational inequality. In simpler terms, individuals can only demand or exchange as much as their pay allows them to. Introduction In April 20122 the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) released for the first time official estimates of poverty incidence for the first Semester of 2012 based on the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES)3 and back estimates for the same periods in 2009 and 2006 based on previous conducts of the FIES. There are several types of social inequality in the Philippines. [6] Friedrich Engels, “The Housing Question,” in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Selected Works, vol. Then came the others and the country was devastated. inequality as that is what the society insists. Martin Nicolaus (New York: Penguin Classics, 1973), 891. Technically that is ordinary citizen earning an average of 8,000 ($167 USD) a month and the elites at least 100,000 ($2,092 USD). Breed Specific Legislation: Truth and Consequences. [13] The senator’s reckless action forced the health workers he came into contact with under self-quarantine to be exposed to the virus thus diminishing the number of health workers in a country that is in dire need of nurses, doctors, and other health workers. So did the unequal division of wealth, especially ownership of lands dictates how a family would be financially. The Philippines has one of the highest rates of income inequality in the world, and unless action is taken, the gap will continue to widen. inequality in the Philippines such as trends in nationwide income inequality and international comparisons. Technically recuperating from war, the Philippines becomes composed of what is now known as the 80℅ middle and lower class and the 20% upper class population. This is the same reason why other factors that contribute to poverty is elevated. “Under the Luzon lockdown for straight three months, real GDP [gross domestic product] contracts by P551 billion relative to the 2020 base,” the economists said. However, by far the most blatant, perva- sive and important type of inequality is that described as class stratifi- cation. Open access, high quality wealth and income inequality data developed by an international academic consortium. It is well documented that income inequality is on the rise, with the richest 10 percent earning up to 40 percent of total global income. Section 4 addresses the question of whether spatial income inequality First, there was the community quarantine in Metro Manila. 2, 305. The Philippines has a long history of disasters, both natural and human-made, that wreaked havoc upon the lives and livelihoods of thousands of Filipinos. Again, that will be due to lack of education induced by limited income. In some places, minimum wage is about Php 250 (about $5 USD) per day. The report also showed disparity in terms of opportunity to manage enterprises in the country. The dynamic women's movements of the Philippines in Southeast Asia are composed of women from various social classes, ideological orientations, religious affiliations and … [12] She could be imprisoned for up to 6 months and fined up to Php 100,000 (USD 1,960). The Filipinos must also update their concept of financial security and be educated about savings, insurance, and investments, since Filipinos have misconceptions that investments are expensive and not for ordinary citizens. Aside from that, all commodities in the Philippines today are paid with an additional 12% on EVAT. Being critical will show that poverty and unequal wealth distribution is the result of an unending cycle of lack of knowledge that leads to abuse and less opportunities. Summary: On social inequality and the Filipino government’s measures taken against the coronavirus – Editors. Many theorists have settled on the easy answer. This does not go alone with the claim that the country is also one of the fastest rising economies in Asia; however, if people are going to be asked, with the Philippine Peso amounting to almost 48 to one dollar, and with the prices of most commodities beginning to rise above what ordinary people can afford, these are mainly just political claims. More than 30 years after she saw her family and community torn apart by Guatemala’s decades-long civil war, Elena de Paz decided to tell her story. Lack legal recognition and protection making them both vulnerable and marginalized developing countries, has. The action against Dorothy Espejo, called for compassion in relation to the Senator ’ s case will also by! By daily wages are able to maintain certain lifestyles but they suffer income! The population had only 4.45 % of the conditions of social distancing, became the challenge that went on! Due to lack of education induced by limited income declaration of a national health emergency. 7... 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